Solid Waste Management

Примерный Состав ТБО в РФ в 2002 г.

Solid household wastes and their classification

The amount of debris increases by about 3 per cent per year. The number of TBTs in the LPG is about 100 million tonnes/year, with Russia accounting for more than a quarter of this volume (other data for the FM, some 63 million tonnes/year, for 2007).

The composition of solid household waste depends on many factors: the level of development of the country and the region, the cultural level of the population and its customs, the time of the year and other reasons. More than one third of TBTs are packaging materials, which are continuously increasing. The TBT is characterized by multi-component and heterogeneity of composition, small density and instability (capitality). TBT sources of education can be both residential and public buildings, commercial, mature, sports and other enterprises. In foreign practice, the name TBD corresponds to the term "solid municipal waste" (Municipal Solid Waste).

The TBT consists of the following important wastes:

  • Paper (carton);
  • Large materials;
  • Food (organic) waste;
  • plastic;
  • Metals;
  • rubber;
  • skin;
  • Textile;
  • glass;
  • Tree and others.

Dangerous TBTs include:

  • Waste batteries and batteries;
  • Electrical appliances;
  • Laki;
  • paints and cosmetics;
  • fertilizers and eggs;
  • Domestic chemistry;
  • Medical waste;
  • Mercury-containing thermometers;
  • barometers;
  • Tonometers;
  • lamps.

Some waste (e.g. medical, eggs, residues of paint, varnishes, glues, cosmetics, anti-corrosions, domestic chemistry) poses a danger to the environment if it passes through sewage into waters or as soon as it is released from landfill and enters groundwater or surface waters. Batteries and mercury-containing devices will be safe until the hull is damaged: the glazing of appliances can easily be hit on the landfill and the corrosion will unleash the battery in a while. Mercury, alkali, lead, zinc will then become elements of secondary air pollution, groundwater and surface waters.

By nature and degree of environmental impact, they are divided into:

  • Productive; inertial waste which is currently economically unrealized;
  • Recycled materials (secondary);
  • Class 3 waste;
  • Class 2 waste;
  • Class 1 waste.

In Russia, TBT education in 2007 was 56,8 million tons.

Table No. 1: Referral to TBT in Russia

Method of processingburiedEnergy incinerationComputationRecycling
970, 3
ppm55, 0960, 5680, 1704

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